Chapter 2. Fibonacci Bars
The FibonacciBars.elm example program displays a pile of rectangles. Their widths correspond to the values of the first Fibonacci numbers. You can see the bars here: FibonacciBars.html.
Before explaining how that program is written, let’s first make a small detour, and introduce the REPL (Read Eval Print Loop) tool, that Elm — like many other functional languages — provides. The elm repl command starts it, like so:
$ elm repl Elm REPL 0.4.2 (Elm Platform 0.15.1) See usage examples at <https://github.com/elm-lang/elm-repl> Type :help for help, :exit to exit >
The REPL prints the initial message and the prompt > character. We can now enter Elm statements and evaluate Elm expressions. Let’s first add two numbers:
> 1.0 + 6.5 7.5 : Float
We added two floating-point numbers. Elm printed the result followed by its type, Float, which denotes floating point numbers. The value and the type are separated with the : character. We will now round a floating point number by calling the round function. In addition to that, we will assign a name to the result:
> x = round 7.5 8 : Int
In order to call a function, we use its name, followed by a whitespace character (or more than one of them), followed by the function parameter. Notice, that not only the value has changed (it has been rounded), but its type as well. It is now Int, which represents integer numbers. By preceding the function call expression with a name and the equals sign, we have assigned the name to the result value.
We can use the REPL to find out the signature of the round function by entering its name alone.
> round <function: round> : Float -> Int
As you could expect, the signature of the round function says that the function takes a floating point number and returns an integer. Let’s now add something to x.
> x + 1.0 ## ERRORS in repl-temp-000.elm ################################################# -- TYPE MISMATCH --------------------------------------------- repl-temp-000.elm The right argument of (+) is causing a type mismatch. 3| x + 1.0 ^^^ As I infer the type of values flowing through your program, I see a conflict between these two types: Int Float
What is that? We got a compilation error. We tried to add x of type Int to 1.0, which is a floating-point number of type Float. Elm does not allow adding an Int value to a Float value. We need to turn x into a Float first. We can do it using the toFloat function.
> toFloat x 8 : Float > toFloat x + 1.0 9 : Float
Notice, that the function application binds more than the addition. In other words, the above expression is equivalent to the following one:
> (toFloat x) + 1.0 9 : Float
Let’s give another value a name:
> y = 4 4 : number
Wait a moment, what is its type? Didn’t I write that type names must always start with capital letters? Actually, the type of y is not yet decided by the Elm compiler. It could be an integer value, but it could also be a floating-point number. Elm does not want to decide too early. We can add y to both an integer value and a floating-point value:
> x + y 12 : Int > 1.0 + y 5 : Float
In both cases we got results of different types. The first result is of type Int, since we are adding a number to an Int value. Elm decides to treat the number as an Int, and adds it to the other Int value. In the other case, we are adding a number to a Float value. Elm decides to treat the number as a Float value, and adds it to the other Float value. It is important to understand how Elm treats numbers. Some Elm standard functions require parameters of type Int, while other functions require parameters of type Float. If you provide an argument of a wrong type, you will get a compilation error. In that case you may need to use a conversion function, like round or toFloat.
Besides the +, - and * operators for addition, substracting and multiplication, Elm provides two operators for division: / and //. One is operating on Float values and the other one on Int values. Let’s use the REPL to show their signatures. However, since they are operators, and not functions with alphanumeric names, we need to enclose them in parenthesis.
> (/) <function> : Float -> Float -> Float > (//) <function> : Int -> Int -> Int
There is also the % operator, for taking a modulo of two numbers.
> (%) <function> : Int -> Int -> Int
Here are examples of using those operators:
> 10 / 3 3.3333333333333335 : Float > 10 // 3 3 : Int > 10 % 3 1 : Int
Let’s now go back to our program displaying colorful bars. The program consists of two files. The FibonacciBars.elm file defines the main function. But let’s first a look at the Fibonacci.elm file, which defines the Fibonacci module. Here is its content:
File Fibonacci.elm: module Fibonacci where import List exposing ((::), map2, reverse) fibonacci : Int -> List Int fibonacci n = let fibonacci' n k1 k2 acc = if n <= 0 then acc else fibonacci' (n-1) k2 (k1+k2) (k2 :: acc) in fibonacci' n 0 1  |> reverse fibonacciWithIndexes : Int -> List (Int,Int) fibonacciWithIndexes n = map2 (,) [0..n] (fibonacci n)
It begins with a module declaration and an import statement. Since :: is an operator, it needs to be enclosed in parenthesis in the import statement.
Next comes the fibonacci function for calculating the first n Fibonacci numbers. Its type declaration says that it takes one argument of type Int and returns a list of integers List Int.
A list literal is a sequence of list elements enclosed in square brackets and separated by commas:
> ["a","b","c","d"] ["a","b","c","d"] : List String
The fibonacci function uses the auxiliary fibonacci' function (yes, the aphostrophe character ' can be used in identifiers; by convention identifiers ending with ' are somehow related to similar identifiers without the ' character). The auxiliary function is defined within the let expression, which has the following structure:
let <definitions> in <expression>
The result of the let expression is the value of the expression defined after the in keyword, but that expression may use the definitions placed between the let and in keywords. The fibonacci' function is recursive — it calls itself. It has four parameters: n, k1, k2 and acc. The parameter n represents the number of fibonacci numbers to be calculated and the other parameters are auxiliary parameters used by the computation algorithm. The funciton is initially called with the parameter n equal to the number of Fibonacci numbers to be generated, followed by the numbers 0 and 1, followed by an empty list.
The body consists of an if/then/else expression, which is a conditional expression with the following structure:
if <condition> then <result1> else <result2>
The expression calculates its value in one of two distinct ways, depending on the value of the condition placed between the if and then keywords. The condition must evaluate to a boolean value, that is a value of type Bool, which has two possibles values: True or False.
If the conditional expression evaluates to True, the result of the whole if expression is the result of evaluating the expression after the then keyword. Otherwise, it is the result of evaluating the expression after the else keyword. In our case, when n is less then or equal to 0, the fibonacci' function returns the value of the accumulator acc. Otherwise, it calls itself with the new values of n, k1, k2 and acc:
fibonacci' (n-1) k2 (k1+k2) (k2 :: acc)
The k2 parameter represents the next fibonacci number. It is therefore added to the accumulator. The new accumulator is calculated by prepending k2 to its current value. The :: operator yields a new list with its left operand (an element) prepended to its right operand (a list).
> 7 :: [1,2,3,4] [7,1,2,3,4] : List number
The new n value for the recursive call to fibonacci' is equal to the old n decremented by 1. The next value of k2 is the sum of the current values of k1 and k2. The result of calling the fibonacci' function is reversed using the reverse function, since fibonacci' returns the list of numbers in reversed order.
> import List exposing (..) > reverse [1,2,3,4] [4,3,2,1] : List number
We can test our fibonacci function in the REPL. First, we import functions from the Fibonacci module.
> import Fibonacci exposing (..)
We can now call the fibonacci function.
> fibonacci 10 [1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,34,55] : List Int
The bars displayed by our program have the width proportional to the first ten Fibonacci numbers. But their colors are calculated differently. They are selected from a list of seven colors based on the index (position) of each number. We will need a function that returns a list of pairs containing the Fibonacci numbers paired with their positions. The fibonacciWithIndexes function calculates such pairs.
> fibonacciWithIndexes 10 [(0,1),(1,1),(2,2),(3,3),(4,5),(5,8),(6,13),(7,21),(8,34),(9,55)] : List ( Int, Int )
A pair of values is enclosed in parenthesis and separated by a comma.
> (1,"a") (1,"a") : ( number, String )
Unlike a list, both values of a pair may have different types. A pair is a 2-element tuple. We can also create tuples containing more elements.
> (1,"a",4.0) (1,"a",4) : ( number, String, Float ) > (1,"a",4.0,6) (1,"a",4,6) : ( number, String, Float, number' )
There is another way we can use to create tuples:
> (,) 1 "a" (1,"a") : ( number, String ) > (,,) 1 "a" 4.0 (1,"a",4) : ( number, String, Float ) > (,,,) 1 "a" 4.0 6 (1,"a",4,6) : ( number, String, Float, number' )
(,), (,,) and (,,,) are actually functions returning tuples.
> (,) <function> : a -> b -> ( a, b ) > (,,) <function> : a -> b -> c -> ( a, b, c ) > (,,,) <function> : a -> b -> c -> d -> ( a, b, c, d )
Those functions are generic, or polimorphic — the letters a, b, c and d denote type parameters.
The list of consecutive numbers from 1 to 20 is generated by the [1..20] expression.
> [1..20] [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20] : List number
The map2 function takes a two-argument function and two lists, and returns a list of values calculated by applying the function to consecutive elements of both lists, skipping the excessive elements of the longer list.
> map2 (+) [9,8,7,6,5] [4,4,7,7] [13,12,14,13] : List number > map2 (,) [9,8,7,6,5] [4,4,7,7] [(9,4),(8,4),(7,7),(6,7)] : List ( number, number' )
Let’s now look at the contents of the FibonacciBars.elm file.
File FibonacciBars.elm: module FibonacciBars where import Color exposing (blue, brown, green, orange, purple, red, yellow) import Fibonacci exposing (fibonacci, fibonacciWithIndexes) import Graphics.Collage exposing (collage, filled, rect) import Graphics.Element exposing (down, flow, right, show) import List exposing (drop, head, length, map) import Maybe exposing (withDefault) color n = let colors = [ red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, brown ] in drop (n % (length colors)) colors |> head |> withDefault red bar (index, n) = flow right [ collage (n*20) 20 [ filled (color index) (rect (toFloat n * 20) 20) ], show n ] main = flow down <| map bar (fibonacciWithIndexes 10)
Again, we start with the module declaration. We then proceed by importing both functions from the Fibonacci module and several members from the standard library modules. Next, we have three function declarations. Let’s analyze them one by one.
The color function returns one of seven colors based on the value of its parameter. The seven colors are defined in the let expression, in a list. The color names used are all available in the Color module. The function calculates its result by dropping (using the drop function) a number of elements from the list of colors, and then taking the first element of the remaining list. The drop function takes two arguments: the number of elements to be dropped and a list.
> drop 2 [1,2,3,4,5] [3,4,5] : List number
The number of elements to be dropped is calculated by taking a modulo of n and the length of the list of colors. The head function returns the first element of a list. However, its result type is not a — the type of list elements — but Maybe a.
head : List a -> Maybe a
The Maybe data type is defined in the Maybe module and it is a so called union type. It is a union of two distinct cases. It represents optional values. An existing value is represented by the Just case, while a non-existing value by Nothing. Therefore, by giving head an empty list as its argument we get Nothing. Otherwise, we get the first element of the list wrapped with Just.
> head  Nothing : Maybe.Maybe a > head [1,2,3,4] Just 1 : Maybe.Maybe number
To get the value out of the Maybe type we can use the Maybe.withDefault function. The first argument of withDefault is a fallback value — to be used in case the Maybe value is Nothing.
> import Maybe exposing (withDefault) > withDefault 0 Nothing 0 : number > withDefault 0 (Just 2) 2 : number
The color function uses withDefault to “unwrap” the color value from the Maybe value returned by head, but the fallback value is never used, since the argument given to head is never an empty list.
The bar function produces a colored rectangle together with a number corresponding to its length. Since it is our first function which draws something, let’s analyze it in detail, piece by piece.
The rect (toFloat n * 20) 20 expression uses the rect function to produce a rectangular “shape”. The rect function is defined in the Graphics.Collage module. It takes two Float values representing the width and height of the rectangle, and returns a value of type Shape:
rect : Float -> Float -> Shape
There are other functions creating shapes in the Graphics.Collage module: oval, circle, square, ngon, polygon. The shape created by the rect function is used as an argument to the filled function in the following expression:
filled (color index) (rect (toFloat n * 20) 20)
The filled function takes a color and a shape, and creates a value of type Form representing the filled (colored) rectangle:
filled : Color -> Shape -> Form
Other functions creating forms from shapes are available as well: textured, gradient, outlined. The Color argument is calculated by the color function, described above.
The next step is transforming a Form into an Element. This is the job of the collage function:
collage : Int -> Int -> List Form -> Element
The collage function takes two integer values and a list of forms and turns them into an Element. The two integer values represent the element width and height. The element created by collage in the bar function creates an element which has the same size as the rectangular form that it contains:
collage (n*20) 20 [filled (color index) (rect (toFloat n * 20) 20)]
The flow function, defined in the Graphics.Element module, creates an Element from a list of elements:
flow : Direction -> List Element -> Element
The Direction parameter represents the direction of how the elements from the list are placed in relation to each other. The following functions return various Direction values: left, right, up, down, inward, outward.
In the bar function, flow is used for creating an element consisting of the rectangular bar and a numeric value to its right (thus the right function used for the Direction argument). The numeric value is turned into an Element using the show function. That function can be used to turn any value into a value of type Element:
show : a -> Element
A small letter, like a, in the type signature denotes a type. Thus the signature says, that show turns any type a (whatever it is) into an Element.
The main function uses the flow function as well, this time putting the elements downwards. The second argument of the flow function is preceded by the <| operator. That operator is basically the function application opeator: f <| a is equivalend to f a, except that <| has low binding priority. Therefore, it can be used when we do not want to enclose some expression in parenthesis. Let’s explain it on an example. The following two lines of code are equivalent:
flow down (map bar (fibonacciWithIndexes 10)) flow down <| map bar (fibonacciWithIndexes 10)
They both represent a flow function call with two arguments. In the first line, the second argument is enclosed in parentheses. In the second line, since the <| operator has a low binding priority, the expression to its right is calculated first and its result is used as the argument to the flow down function (which represents a partial application of the flow function).
The expression used as the second argument of the flow function uses the map function, which has the following signature:
> map <function> : (a -> b) -> List a -> List b
The map function has two arguments. The first one is a one-argument function — a function that takes values of some type a and returns values of some type b. The second argument is a list of elements of type a. The map function returns a list of elements of type b by applying the function to each element of the input list. Here are several examples of using the map function with various arguments.
> map round [1.2,4.5,7.8,98] [1,5,8,98] : List Int > map fibonacci [3,4] [[1,1,2],[1,1,2,3]] : List (List Int) > map (\x -> x+1) [1,2,3,4] [2,3,4,5] : List number
In the second example we used the fibonacci function, obtaining a list of lists.
The third example introduces a new concept — an anonymous function. It is a function without a name. It starts with the \ character, which is followed by the name (or names) of function arguments. The arguments are followed by the -> arrow and the function body. In the example, the anonymous function has one parameter x, and returns the input value incremented by one.
To exit the REPL, use the :exit command.
In the present chapter, we have been able to perform some mathematical calculations as well as show some graphics. However, our program is static. In the next chapter we will show how Elm lets write dynamic programs by means of signals.